HAFOS - The Hybrid Antarctic Float Observing System

Motivation and Background

The oceans are key elements of the global climate system, not at last due to their ability to extract and store heat and CO2 from the atmosphere.  Polar oceans are of particular relevance, as it is here where dense waters are formed by cooling and salinification (through formation of sea-ice). The dense water formed in the Weddell Sea makes a major contribution to the Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW), which fills and ventilates most of the deep basins of the world ocean.  Recognizing and understanding the underlying mechanisms and potential changes of these processes requires detailed oceanographic measurements at highest precision over long periods (decades) and at high temporal and spatial resolution (hourly at best). 


Dr. Olaf Boebel, Scientist
Rainer Graupner, Technician
Dr. Mario Hoppema, Scientist
Matthias Monsees, Technician
Dr. Ilse van Opzeeland, Scientist
Gerd Rohardt, Scientist
Stefanie Spiesecke, Technician
Dr. Volker Strass, Scientist