Observing systems and technologies
In addition to surveys with icebreaker support (profiles of temperature and salinity with devices from the ship and from nearby ice floes) there is an international effort to use autonomous drifting ice-tethered buoy systems for atmosphere-ice-ocean observation. This has helped to cover, in particular, regions and times of the year that are difficult to access with icebreakers or airplanes. AWI has strongly contributed to this effort by developing and maintaining the FRAM and MIDO infrastructure. We also use a large number of moorings which are anchored to the sea floor and allow for measurements between the sea floor and tens of meters below the sea surface for a continuous period of typically one to two years.