Terrestrial polar biodiversity is threatened by climate change, which may lead to the formation of new communities, rapid diversification, or, eventually, taxa loss. Within the research area "Polar Land Biodiversity", the response of terrestrial polar biodiversity change to climate and land cover variability over late Pleistocene to present‐day warming will be investigated. Thereby we will focus on the diversity of terrestrial plants and aquatic flora and relevant faunal taxa on different taxonomic levels. We mainly regard community scale and sub‐species diversity of the selected key groups diatoms and higher plants. We will trace biodiversity change by using environmental (ancient) DNA and microfossils obtained from sediments, water and ice samples.